When we want to compare things, sometimes we need to put adjectives into the comparative or superlative form.
There are three levels:
The comparative form is used when one thing is bigger, smaller, better, worse, more interesting, less interesting, etc. than another.
In English, it's done with the ending "-er" or the words "more" or "less."
Adjective + „-er“: The comparative form is made by taking the adjective and adding the ending "-er."
After the comparative form come the word "als" and the second noun (what we're comparing the subject to).
If the adjective ends in „-el“, the „e“ is taken out in the comparative form (but not in the superlative form).
If the adjective ends in a vowel (a,e,i,o,u) + „-er,“ the „e“ in the comparative form is taken out.
Adjectives rarely end in „-er.“
In one-syllable adjectives, an umlaut (ä,ö,ü) is added.
The superlative describes things that are the most extreme - the biggest, the smallest, the best, the worst, the most interesting,...
There are two ways to construct the superlative
For adjectives ending in „d,“ „t,“ „s,“ „ß,“ „x,“ or „z,“ form the superlative with „-esten“
Exception: groß – größer – am größten
One-syllable adjectives usually have an umlaut in the superlative form
A few adjectives have irregular comparative and/or superlative constructions:
If the comparative or superlative form comes before a noun, then the adjective must be declined just like a normal adjective.
In the comparative form we simply add the ending. In the superlative form we adjust the ending "-en" according to the normal rules of adjective declension.
The so called "positive form" of the adjective is the base form and can also be used to compare.
The comparison is created by combining the positive form with the phrases:
so / genauso … wie (⇒ the same / equal)
Meaning: Jan weighs the same as Marcel.
halb so… wie (⇒ half)
doppelt so … wie (⇒ double / twice)
fast so… wie (⇒ close / almost)
nicht so … wie (⇒ not the same)
In these cases, the word "wie" is used similarly to the English phrase "as... as": "The cake is half as big as the other," "The cake is almost as big as the other," and so on.
A detailed explanation of the rules for adjective declension.
An overview of what you have to pay attention to when dealing with adjectives in general.
Adjective declension depends on whether there is a definite article, indefinite article (including possessive determiners or the negative article), or no article at all (the zero article) in front of the adjective.