Demonstrative pronouns are used to emphasize something and are therefore always strongly stressed.
They can also be used as a placeholder for a previously mentioned noun.
The demonstrative pronouns "der," "die," and "das" are declined the same as the relative pronouns:
Demonstrative pronouns are strongly stressed and are therefore almost always in position 1:
Alternative Word Order: „Er gibt den ihr.“
It is not grammatically incorrect to put demonstrative pronouns in position 3 or 4, but being placed in position 1 helps with the stress and sounds the most natural. Native speakers will probably be confused about what you are saying if the demonstrative pronoun is not in position 1.
"Das" combined with the verb "sein" refers to a person or thing (like pointing a finger at it).
It is often combined with the adverbs hier, da, and dort.
"Das" can also refer to a whole idea or situation.
A situation or idea has no gender → das
"Dieser" and "jener" can be used as both articles and pronouns. For both uses they are declined the same.
"Dieser" is used to refer to something close to the speaker.
"Jener" is used to refer to something farther away from the speaker.
In informal language, "jenes" is rarely used. "Der," "die," "das," … + "da"/"dort" are used instead.
„Gefallen dir die Schuhe?“ – „Nein, diese nicht aber die dort!“
„Ist das dein neues Auto?“ – „Dieses nicht, aber das dort!“