Conjunctive Adverbs

What are Conjunctive Adverbs?

Conjunctive adverbs are adverbs that combine sentences, clauses, words, and phrases with each other.

The difference between conjunctions and conjunctive adverbs: conjunctive adverbs are grammatically seen as a part of the sentence while conjunctions are not.

Conjunctive adverbs normally go in position 1. When they are somewhere else in the sentence, they are usually being used as a modal, causal, temporal, or locative adverb. In this case, the combining nature of them is not so important.

The Difference between Conjunctive Adverbs and Conjunctions

Conjunctions go in position 0. Conjunctive adverbs go in position 1.

  • „Anna kommt später und Jan kommt auch später.“
    Conjunction - Subject - Verb

The conjunction is in position 0. That means the second main clause starts with "Jan" in position 1 and the conjugated verb "kommt" in position 2.

  • „Anna kommt später, außerdem kommt Jan auch später.“
    Conjunctive Adverb - Verb - Subject

The second main clause starts with the conjunctive adverb in position 1. The conjugated verb "kommt" has to be in position 2, so the subject "Jan" comes after the verb.

Conjunctive adverbs are at the beginning of main clauses. Also, they never send the verb to the end of the clause.

The Conjunctive Adverbs


  • Conjunctive adverbs are a part of the sentence sentence in terms of word order, while conjunctions are not.
  • They usually go in position 1, but don't have to. When they aren‘t in position 1, they are often being used as modal, causal, temporal, or locative adverbs.



Aneinanderreihend (kopulativ)

außerdem, zudem, dazu, daneben, darüber hinaus, desgleichen, ebenso, ferner, weiter, zusätzlich

Ort (lokal)

daneben, darüber, darunter, dazwischen

Zeit (temporal)

davor, währenddessen, indessen, danach, anschließend

Grund (kausal)

folglich, demzufolge, demnach, damit, somit, mithin, also, deswegen, deshalb, daher

Folge (konsekutiv)

also, demzufolge, folglich, infolgedessen, mithin, so, somit, deswegen, deshalb

Entgegengesetzt (adversativ)

jedoch, doch, dagegen, stattdessen, hingegen, allerdings, dennoch, indes, indessen, vielmehr, demgegenüber, stattdessen

Einschränkung (restriktiv)

insofern, nur, freilich, allerdings, indessen

Einräumend (konzessiv)

trotzdem, dennoch, dessen ungeachtet, gleichwohl, immerhin, allerdings, sowieso, demzufolge

Related Topics:

If you aren't confident in deciding if something is a main clause or subordinate clause, take another look at those lessons.

There are also temporal adverbs, locative adverbs, modal adverbs, and causal adverbs.

It might also be a good time to review conjunctions.

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